Thursday, May 14, 2020
There are so many questions and mysteries about humans came to be. The theory of evolution is the most popular theory people follow to help explain. Evolution tries to explain that life is constantly adjusting to its environment and making small changes through generations. It is believed that when life first started it all came from the same thing. Everything that is living on the earth right now has dna in common with humans. Scientists arenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure if there could have been multiple trees of life and one tree of life just happened to be the best and become the lone survivor, this is just another possibility that we can never be to certain of. Its believed that humans evolved from a species such as chimps. The chimp is what we have the most in common with when it comes to dna. We even have dna in common with plants. Nobody is certain on exactly what life is and why we are here but we do know that everything that is living is able to adjust to its environment. It makes improvem ents and always takes a step closer to becoming the perfect race. I believe that humans are the most evolved species out as of now due to the level of our intelligence and abilities our body has such as having a thumb and being able to grab things. Evolution is a theory that makes a lot of sense because we have proof that there are always changes made to a species. There have been many fossils found throughout our history which show characteristics very similar to a modern day human but notShow MoreRelatedCharles Darwin s Theory Of Evolution918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCharles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Evolution is the most successful theory of itÃ¢â¬â¢s kind. DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of Natural Selection has found success not just in the organic world, but also in human society. This is no coincidence. After DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Beagle voyage, he returned to England during the Industrial Revolution. As a man of wealth, Darwin acted as a first-hand witness to the societal changes occurring ar ound him. The Industrial Revolution, along with the corresponding economic theories played a large role inRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCountless scientists spent their lives working on a succinct theory of evolution, but none found as great of popularity and success as Charles Darwin. Using his concept of Natural Selection, Darwin managed to explain evolution in not just the organic world, but also in humans. The fact that DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory transfers so easily to human society is no coincidence. After DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Beagle voyage, he returned to England during the Industrial Revolution. As a man of wealth, Darwin acted as a first-hand witnessRead MoreCreationism: The Center of Our Universe and Life Essay examples1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMany people believe that through the theory of evolution life began. However the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular book is the Bible. The Bible is also on almost every critics top ten list of books that should b e read. So how can the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular book be wrong? Many who have read the Bible believe that only through the power of God life began upon the Earth. There are many people who do not believe in the theory of evolution and instead believe in the power of divine creationism. Creationism is a beliefRead MoreEssay on Christian Beliefs in the Origins of the World511 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesuniverse, as it could not have come from nothing. He believed that God was the creator. In Exodus 20:11, we read that God created everything in just six days - and that this was inscribed with Gods own finger onto a stone tablet. Some people believe that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power is far greater than we could possibly imagine, and that the Bible teaches that God only has to speak and things happen (see Psalm 33:6,9). This would explain how God managed to create the entire universe inRead MoreThe Validity of The Evolutionary Theory Essay1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe evolution theory, one of the most significant theories, laid groundwork for the study of modern biological science. This theory has lead scientists into unending debates due to lack of empirical supports. Until the mid-eighteenth century, when Charles Darwin came up with an explanation to evolution, scientists, then, began to endorse this hypothesis. In Ã¢â¬Å"Natural Selection,Ã¢â¬ Darwin explains the natural selection, a plausible mechanism that causes evolution, to gain approval of his cynical audienceRead MoreThe Theory of Evolution and Survival of the Fittest Essay1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessound crazy? The theory of evolution, in basic terms, speculates that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor. The theory of evolution and survival of the fittest has been around since the time of the ancient Greeks and maybe earlier. Evolution has provided people of th e world with an explanation of how everyone and everything got here. Although, this theory has sparked a lot of debate, the factual side of evolution is quite interesting. Contrary to popular belief, Charles DarwinRead More Evolution Vs. Creationism Essay1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEvolution vs. Creationism Abstract In the history of science vs. religion there have been no issues more intensely debated than evolution vs. creationism. The issue is passionately debated since the majority of evidence is in favor of evolution, but the creation point of view can never be proved wrong because of religious belief. Human creation breaks down into three simple beliefs; creation theory, naturalistic evolution theory, and theistic evolution theory. The complexities of all threeRead More evolution v. creation Essay1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Evolution nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Should the stork theory appear in books on reproduction? How about astrological lore in expositions on astronomy? It would be unreasonable to even consider those ridiculous concepts. This is why the idea of creation should not be considered as the answer to how life began. Rather, the theory of evolution accounts for the creation of life. Charles Darwin is credited with creating the theory of evolution. Evolution assumes that all natural forms arose fromRead MoreThe Effects Of Clinical Depression On An Individual s Dreaming1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresearch in the field of dreaming. Social scientists and psychologists are so keen to delve into the workings of the unconscious brain, resulting in countless breakthroughs and theories as to why and how we dream. There is an article about the effect of clinical depression on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s dreaming. It has been found that people suffering from depression dream three times more than those without depressio n. This is due to the higher levels of emotional arousal to get out of their system. Ã¢â¬Å"DepressionRead MoreScientific Theories Are Not Random Guesses894 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbelief is that of science, then they probably believe in DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution which states all organisms originated from microscopic organisms who have changed and been modified over time. However, whatever your theory may be, it is only plausible if it accurately describes an observation and makes definite predictions about the results of future observations. As the National Academy of Sciences explains, a scientific theory is Ã¢â¬Å"a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Trust vs. Mistrust My parents met at Mississippi Valley State University and fell in love. I was born September 12, 1988 in Greenwood, MS at Greenwood Leflore Hospital. My parents were almost married two years. I was the fourth child, but the second from their union. My mom was the sickest when she was pregnant with me. She couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold anything down; her appetite was null and void. She basically was on my grandmother couch in misery those nine months. I was the first girl for my parents and my maternal grandparents. So I was given a lot of attention. My dad was in the Navy, so my first years were on the move. A few months after I was born we move to Jacksonville, Florida. My siblings at the time were four and one years old. FromÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I liked playing dress up. My mom had bought me some childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s makeup. I would put on my clothes, makeup, plastic heels and purse. You couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell me anything. At this time there were five of us. So I di dnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any issues playing with other children. I would like to play teacher with my younger brother. I had to occasionally make mud pies to keep his attention. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe I was that much of a talker. I may have asked a couple of questions here and there. I doubt if I was constantly asking questions. My sister was a baby at this time; therefore I really couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t play with her. I tried to keep up with my older brothers and cousins, but they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to play with me. I had to entertain myself at times. I spent a lot of time in the kitchen with my grandmother. I loved helping my grandmother cook. I also had an Easy Bake Oven that I would use to bake cakes and other dessert for my family. Having older and younger siblings helped me learn how to become a follower as well as a leader. My parents answer the entire question I may have. When they saw I like to bake, they bought me an Easy Bake Oven. When they saw I like figuring out things, they bought m e puzzles. When they saw I like making things, they bought me a craft set. These things gave me initiative. I wanted to try new things. I wanted to learn more. These items also taught me responsibility and self-control. I knew I had to take care of my stuff if I wanted toShow MoreRelatedCognitive Development And Erik Erikson s 8 Stages Of Psychosocial Development1788 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s 4 stages of Cognitive Development and Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s 8 stages of Psychosocial Development Developmental is understood as the act or process of developing; progress such as child developmental. When children go through the process of developing, they all develop the same regardless of what state or country there from. The way children develop has been studied by two psychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ name Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson and they both develop a theory of how children developRead MoreErik Erikson s Stages Of Development1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Psychosocial Development The View on Erik H. Erikson s Stages of Development Frank Phan Cosumnes River College Psychology 300 Abstract This paper will touch over the aspects of Erik H Erickson s eight stages and how they affect everyday lives from infancy to adulthood. The paper will go over the approximate ages and the psychosocial crisis that they will eventually come to. Neglecting a child can lead to a cause of mental negligence in the form of Arrested Development. Within differentRead MoreErik Eriksons Theory and Legacy1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesErik Erikson was dabbled in art after he finished high school and then traveled through Europe. He then knew what he wanted to study after his friend suggested him to study psychoanalysis. So he did and later on down the road he received a certificate from Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He then moved to the United States in 1933 and had a teaching position at Harvard Medical School. He began a private practice in child psychoanalysis. He also held a teaching position at the University of CaliforniaRead MoreÃ¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Doubt is the brother of shame,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ is just one of the famous quotes from the theorist Erik Erikson.1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Doubt is the brother of shame,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ is just one of the famous quotes from the theorist Erik Erikson. He was born 1902, he was a German-born American. He was famous for all his quotes. Some of them are, (The Erik Erikson Reader, 2000) Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired, (The First Psychoanalyst, 1957) What was Freuds Galapagos, what speciesRead MoreInfluential Educators And Education Program1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbegan his family (Soltis, 2002). Rousseau and G. Stanley Hall had an impact on John DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective (Gouinlock, 2014, para. 2). John DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s learning approach was that children learn by experiences or children learn while moving (Neil, 2005, para. 8). His approach allowed children t o have free personalities, and to interact with the educator or other peers (Soltis, 2002, section 4, para. 3-4). The educator in his approach would be in a classroom for guidance and to observe the class as a child-centeredRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesABSTRACT This research paper will show a thorough review of Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory, specifically the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Psychosocial Development, according to Erik Erikson, is a continuity of crisis throughout our lifespan; these challenges will shape our personality and the way we perceive our surroundings. In addition to this, the different stages mentioned in this Theory complement each other and help us to develop the tools to achieve a sense ofRead MoreJean Piaget And Erik Erikson Essay1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBoth Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson were great Theorists, that works help us understand childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s thought processes and skill sets. Teachers are interacting with their students based on developmental and skill age-appropriateness, while incorporating foundations of theorist teachings. A child-theoristÃ¢â¬â¢s research can provide an understanding of how and why children behave, as well as how they process information. Erik Eri cksonÃ¢â¬â¢s 8 Stages of Development provided a timeline for stages peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds goRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Of Development1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesErik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosocial Theory of Development Erik Erikson, a German psychologist of the early 1900s, is most known for his theory on psychosocial development in humans. He was heavily influenced by his work with Anna Freud and her father, Sigmund Freud. However, in his research, he put emphasis on the cultural and social impact on identity development and studying the ego, which he believed developed with successful crisis resolving throughout life (Ã¢â¬Å"EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s StagesÃ¢â¬ , 2007). He proposed theRead MoreThe Theory Of Child Development803 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesalthough remains unsubstantiated because of the dynamics of individuals and the environment. The theories that will be discussed mainly in this essay are;Cognitive theory-Jean Piaget, Social Learning Theory-Albert Bandura, Psycho-social theory-Erik Erikson ,Socio-cultural theories-Lev Vygotsky. The Psychoanalytic theory will be explored to reflect on how his theories have been integrated into other human developmental theories. Based on my observations,thes e theories will be explored in detail.Read MorePsy 230 Week 8 Ass. Erikson Timeline987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen discussing the timeline of Erik Erikson, we will discover how he formed his theory of psychosocial developmental, along with explaining what stage my friend and I are currently in within his timeline. Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a German born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst, whom formed a theory of psychosocial development on the human life cycle. EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s major innovation was to take FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual stages of the libido and transform them into a developmental model
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
At 100 percent humidity, the plant cannot absorb any more water. In a dryer atmosphere (less humidity), transpiration will happen much more rapidly. c. The rate of transpiration is related to whether the stomata are opened or closed. The curve levels off because something is limiting. Transpiration could be limited by humidity because water is evaporated much more slowly into an atmosphere that already has a lot of water vapor. d. Anacharis lives in an environment where it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to do transpiration (such as underwater), since it has no stomata. Stomata are for gas exchange, and Anacharis lives in an environment where gas exchange is done through diffusion in water. Water lilies live in a wet environment where it is only exposed to air on the top of its leaves, so that is where stomata are present and where gas exchange occurs. The bottoms of the leaves are submerged in water, so there is no gas exchanged there. We will write a custom essay sample on Anacharis and Rate of Transpiration or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The top of black walnut leaves are exposed to direct sunlight. However, the bottoms of the leaves are not because they are not directly exposed to the sunlight. To prevent water loss and to allow water exchange, the stomata are present on the lower epidermis.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Introduction The domestic dog is a member of the Canidae family. This is a biologically cohesive group of carnivores and consists of thirty-eight species (Serpell 10). thus far, man has managed to fully domesticate the dog (Canis familiaris) although he has also attempted to breed the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in captivity for their fur (Klinghammer and Goodmann 36). Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Evolution of Dogs from the Gray Wolf specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The current paper tries to show the link between the modern domesticated dog and the grey wolf using documented evidence from morphological, molecular, and DNA investigations. Tracing the origin of the domesticated dog In 1868, Darwin argued that the various domesticated varieties of the dog could have originated from several wild species or from a single wild species. A number of authors contend that the domesticated dog could have originated from the jackal, the wolf, or other unknown and extinct species (Serpell 10). Darwin also suggested that it would be almost impossible to ascertain the origin of the domesticated dog. However, the combined results of vocalisation, morphological behavior and molecular biology of the domesticated dog now show that the wolf is the principle ancestor of the dog (Grandin and Johnson 87). In the 1950s, Konrad Lorenz proposed that certain modern breeds of the dog could have been the descendants of the wolf, while others could have originated from the jackal. However, Lorenz soon realised that the jackal had a characteristic and complicated howling repertoire that is quite different from that of the wolf or dog. This discovery made Lorenz to rescind his earlier view that the domestic dog could have been a descendant of the jackal (Serpell 11). Another hotly contested idea is the origin of the Australia dingo. Molecular and anatomical invest igations indicate that the dingo may be categorized as a feral dog of ancient descent. In addition, these findings reveal close resemblance between the Australian dingo, the wolf, and the pariah dogs in South-east Asia. What are the Ã¢â¬Ëprecursors of the modern domesticated dog? Bones belonging to wolves in the Middle Pleistocene period have been found alongside those of early hominida. This association is indicative of an overlapping of the hunting activities and occupation of wolves and humans. Human hunters may also have killed wolves occasionally for their skins which they used as clothing (Serpell 12). Advertising Looking for research paper on biology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Once in a while, human hunters would be accompanied by a live pup that they ended up eating but occasionally, such a pup would get accustomed to the family group, effectively becoming tamed. The wolf pups that turned out to be less submiss ive with maturity would undoubtedly be driven away or killed. Others that showed signs of submission were tamed by humans (Savolainen et al 1611). Such tamed wolves are the precursors of the true domesticated dog, although they are many generations apart. Some remains of these animals that were discovered at late glacial sites reveal slight morphological differences in comparison with the remains of wild wolves. Wolf skulls believed to belong to the last Ice Age have also been retrieved at Fairbanks, Alaska. This are thought to be approximately 10,000 years old. These wolf skulls are characterized by shortened facial regions and for this reason, they are thought to be the remains of tamed wolves. This information is supported by evidence of humans having crossed into North America via the Bering Straits around this time. Theories of domestication of dogs from wolves Although it is still not clear how the actual domestication of the Grey Wolf took place, nonetheless, a number of the ories have been proposed on how the domestication process took place. One such theory has to do with the orphaned wolf-cubs. Several studies have suggested that humans were able to tame and socialize some wolf pups that they took while still young. One study has also endeavoured to show that it is possible to socialize the adult wolves successfully (Koler-Matznick 99). In contrast, other scholars contend that socializing adult wolves can be time consuming especially when pups are more than 21 days old. Many scientists are convinced that the early humans adopted orphaned wolf cubs and then proceeded to nurse them. Thereafter, the adopted wolves began to breed, in effect bringing forth Ã¢â¬Å"wolf-likeÃ¢â¬ domesticated animals. As more generations of these Ã¢â¬Å"wolf-likeÃ¢â¬ domesticated animals were born, they bore a lot of resemblance to dogs. Another theory holds that the early wolves were scavengers and as such, they would often be attracted by the refuse that humans lef t behind at campsites. Some of these wolves proved quite successful in their ability to interact with humans and as a result, these traits were passed on to future generations. Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Evolution of Dogs from the Gray Wolf specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ultimately, there emerged a generation of wolves that had a tendency to be domesticated. Humans decided to keep those dogs that showed the least amount of fear and those that demonstrated high level of socialization. Consequently, the early dog developed unique traits that we can now recognize the modern day dog. One of the behavioural characteristics of the gray wolf that made it easier for humans to domesticate them is what is known as Ã¢â¬Å"flight distanceÃ¢â¬ . Flight distance is a measure of the level of closeness that an animal can allow something that it considers dangerous before deciding to run away. If an animal ha s a shorter flight distance, it means that it is not scared by the presence of humans even when feeding. Such a behavioural trait might have been passed down to successive generations of the animals and over time it was amplified to the point that the animals felt comfortable in the presence of humans. Ideally, wolves are believed to have separated into two populations. The first group was made up of a pack of hunters while the second group was made up of village-oriented scavengers. Although there are scanty details as to how the next steps evolved, however, sustaining these two divergent populations must have required the presence of selective pressure. DNA evidence Prior to the development of the DNA technology, scientists held two schools of thought regarding the origin of the domesticated dog. Most of the researchers assumed that the early dogs were the descendants of the tamed wolves and through interbreeding and evolving, this had resulted in a domesticated species. We also have another school of thought that suggests that the modern dog is the distant descendant of the wolf. The same school of thought also believes that the jackal and the coyote could also have been distant relatives of the modern dog. However, DNA evidence now points at the wolf as the sole ancestor of the domesticated dog. One scientist who has done a lot of DNA work on the ancestors of the domesticated dog is Carles Vila. Through his numerous studies, he has analyzed various types of wolf DNA from some 27 populations across North America, Europe and Asia (Vila et al 1687). He has also compared the results of his studies with DNA of some 67 breeds of modern dogs from various parts of the world.Advertising Looking for research paper on biology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More DNA evidence has revealed the most diverse group of wolves possess similar sequences to the ones found in the most ancient breeds of the domesticated dog, including the dingo of Australia. The German Shepherd Dog was shown to share a close resemblance to wolf sequences, in comparison with the sequences of the main dog group (Vila et al 1688). This is a sign that such breeds may have been produced by crossing wild wolves with dogs. Conclusion Over the years, a lot of research has been carried out on the origin of the domesticated dog, with scientists divided into two schools of through. The first and largest school of through believed that dogs could have been the descendants of the gray wolf. Other scientists suggested that the older domesticated dog could have been the descendant of the red fox, or even the raccoon. However, there is now compelling evidence to suggest that the early humans most likely domesticated the modern dog from the gray wolf. This assertion has been supporte d by molecular, morphological and DNA evidence that point at a closer relationship between the domesticated dog, and the gray wolf, more than the red fox and the raccoon. However, because the origins of some of the morphological differences between wolves and dogs are still not clear, there is need to undertake more DNA studies. Such studies also need to be supplemented by a re-evaluation of canidae fossil and archaeological records so that we can resolve the many questions regarding one of manÃ¢â¬â¢s ancient domesticated animal. Works Cited Grandin, Temple and Catherine, Johnson. Animals in translation, New York, NY: Scriber, 2005. Print. Klinghammer, Erich and Goodmann, Patricia. Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 2: Socialization and management of wolves in captivityÃ¢â¬ . In Frank, Harry. Man and Wolf: Advances, Issues, and Problems in Captive Wolf Research. The Hague, The Netherlands: DrÃ W.Ã Junk Publishers, 1987. Print. Koler-Matznick, Janice. The origin of the dog revisited. Anthrozoos , 15.2(2002):98Ã¢â¬â118. Print. Savolainen, Peter, Zhang, Jing, Luo, Joakim Lundeberg, and Thomas Leitner. Ã¢â¬Å"Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic DogsÃ¢â¬ . Science, 298. 5598(2002): 1610Ã¢â¬â1613. Print. Serpell, James. The domestic dog: its evolution, behavior, and interactions with people. Cambridge, Mass: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print. Vila, Carles, Peter, Savolainen, Jesus, Maldonado, John, Rice and Rodney, Honeycutt. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science, 276.5397(1997): 1687-1689. Print. This research paper on Evolution of Dogs from the Gray Wolf was written and submitted by user Memph1s to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Your APA Reference Page Will Be a Disaster If You Dont Follow These 11 Rules If you are in a university program focusing on the social sciences, it is likely youll become very well acquainted with APA (American Psychological Association) style. APA is a specific guideline for formatting your research writing, including everything from the font to use to how to create a reference page of your sources. For an overview of the style, as a whole, check out this video.This style is most often used in fields such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and education, so if youre in (or plan to be in) one of these areas of study and research, youll eventually need to learn APA style- or at least, need to learn where to find information about it. To help you do that, here are 11 rules that will help keep your APA reference page from being a disaster.APA is an academic writing style most often used in fields such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and education. Photo by Tookapic on Pexels.Rule #1: Put your references at the end of your paper but before your appendi xPart of the reason different fields use consistent styles is to make sure researchers know where to look in a paper to find the information they need. If someone wants to know a source for a quote, figure, statistic, or finding youve used as evidence, they can always remember that the reference page- otherwise known as your list of sources- can be found at the end of the paper (but before the appendix).Rule #2: Start your reference list at the top of a new page, with References centeredYou can always tell a fresh-out-of-high-school college student by the various ways he or she will format the reference page of a research paper. Some will put REFERENCES in all caps, bold it, italicize it, put it in quotation marks or underline it- but all of them will be wrong in doing so.The correct way to being your reference list in an APA paper is to place the References heading at the top center of a new page, without any other font styles added. You can go to this link to see an example of thi s if youre still unsure of what to do.Rule #3: Be sure that each source used is includedA common mistake made by research writers, newbie and experienced alike, is to mention a fact taken from a source- even cite it in the text- but then forget to include the full citation for that source in the reference page section of an APA paper.Theres a way to avoid this but it requires a bit of forethought and planning on your end. First, as you write the paper, be sure to include the in-text citation for each quote, statistic, figure, finding, or reference to a study that you use. As soon as you do that, include it on a master sheet of references. This master sheet, which can be handwritten, will then be alphabetized, organized, and formatted to become your official APA reference page.Rule #4: Double-space your reference list with a hanging indent on the second and subsequent lines of each entryThis rule is a hard rule to remember- mostly because when you see a citation at the back of a text book or footnote of an article, its typically single spaced. However, APA format requires that the entire paper be double-spaced, including the references list.The hanging indent part takes a little practice. If youre a whiz on Microsoft Word, you can adjust the style and Word will automatically create the hanging indents for you on each reference entry.Rule #5: Invert all authors names and include their full last name plus first name initialOn your reference list, youll alphabetize all sources based on the name of the author(s) who published them. In order to do this easily, you should invert all authors names to list their last name first, then the initial of their first name and middle name (if known).Example:Montcastle, V. B. (1997, April). The columnar organization of the neocortex. Brain Journal, 120, 701-722.This particular example is for citing a journal article and follows the following format:Author, A. A., Author B. B., Author C. C. (1994, January). Title of article. Tit le of Magazine, volume number(issue number), xxx-xxx.Rule #6: If there are more than seven authors, list the first six then use ellipses before listing the last authors nameSome studies are conducted and published by more than seven authors. While these studies might be rare, you will likely run into one at some point in your academic writing experience. APA has a specific format for citing such a study- list the first six in standard format (last name, A.A.) then the final author following the sixth one and separated by ellipses. If youre citing a journal article, your citation will look like this:Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.Rule #7: Alphabetize by the last name of the first author of each entry and chronologically if the same authorIn cases where you have multiple authors, always use the name that is firs t listed on the study as the first author, and therefore, the name youll eventually alphabetize in your reference list when completed. Follow that authors name with the other authors in the order they are listed- not in alphabetical order within the citation.In cases where you have multiple citations for the same author, as in several books and/or articles written by the same person, list the citations in chronological order- from the earliest to the most recent.Example:Berndt, T. J. (1981).Berndt, T. J. (1999).However, it gets a little more complicated if youre citing an author who has published on their own as well as with other authors. In these cases, always put the citation for the solo work first (regardless of chronology), then the collaboration next.Example:Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends influence on students adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.Berndt, T. J., Keefe, K. (1995). Friends influence on adolescents adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.If an author is listed as the first author on several studies with other authors, list the citations based on alphabetizing the second author.Example:Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.Aphabetizing citations with multiple authors can be one of the most tricky parts of writing an APA reference list. Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.Rule #8: Dont abbreviate the journal title or use the ampersand, and maintain its capitalizationWhile some formatting styles allow both of these, APA does not. When writing out the journal citation in your reference list, write the whole journal name (without abbreviation) and dont use an ampersand () to replace and unless the journal itself prints it that way. Also maintain the capitalization for the Journal in title case.Example:Journal of Education and CurriculumRule #9: Capitalize the first word and the first word following a colon or dash, as well as proper nouns in books, chapters, articles, dissertations, speeches or webpagesCapitalization rules in APA follow a standard format that applies to most writing. You need to capitalize the first word of the sentence, as well as the first word that follows a colon or dash. Youll also need to capitalize all proper nouns. Note that the title of a book or article should not be in title case, only the journal name should be.Rule #10: Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journalsAs with most writing, youll need to italicize titles of books and journals (the name of the journal, not the article). Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the title of the article.Rule #11: Use the manual or OWL at Purdue for specific rules relating to entries based on type of sourceThe Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University is one of the most accessible and thorough APA resources available online. In fact, most of the examples I used throughout this article were taken from that website.The site is organized (in the left-hand column) by APA general format, in-text citations, footnotes/endnotes, reference list, stylistics, headings, tables and figures, and FAQs. It also provides sample papers written in APA format to allow you to see the style rules applied to writing. On the sample papers page, it even offers an automatic generator where you can plug in information about your source and the website will make the APA citation for you.Since there are so many rules related to citing and organizing an APA paper, and some complicated ones (multiple works by the same author, were looking at you!) youre likely not going to memorize every detail of the style- even if you write in it often. Thats why knowing where to go for a solid source online is helpful. I have the OWL site saved in my laptops bookmarks to access easily whenever I need to look up a formatting rule.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Introduction to Discrete Event Dynamic Systems - Research Paper Example It is evident that the deterministic expression in automata is just mere regular languages. From the article, there is the need to illustrate impacting on the feedback. These entail observability, stability, and invertibility. The inclusions are parameters used to define the characteristics of the language. This section addresses the determination of current states of the system. Particularly, there is an interest regarding the observable events in relation with the state of DEDS automaton. In reference with the definition of the term observability, there is the concentration of the intermittent observation of the model, among other inclusions. We will only concentrate with the events under P U Ã¢Ëâ and not the events in Ã¢Ëâ Ã¢Ë © Ã¡ ¿âº. In the observation process, it is difficult to understand or identify when these occur. However, it is crucial to identify where to resolve the intervals of events to bring out a basis for identification the bounders. There is also development of state ambiguity where Ã¢Ëâ is not equal to Ã¡ ¿âº. To illustrate this state of observability, we need to extend graphically draw the inclusions. Below is an illustration of the graph. We can depict that the output is stabilized if the observerÃ¢â¬â¢s state, denoted by E is the subset of E. This is a guarantee that the system is within E. The compensator should therefore ensure that there is correspondence between the observer and the subset E within the finite Ã¡ ½ · in reference with the observable transitions. The formalization of output stability is as follows: This section expounds on inevitability. The problem concerning inevitability arises from the notion that DEDS is an observable system. This means that seeing these events does not really imply that the events will happen. This requires restructuring the whole sequence of the output. This is a section that needs emphasis to solve the inevitability of the problem. This will facilitate the calculation of the performance
Thursday, February 6, 2020
To what extent has North Korean foreign policy became less isolationist since the Cold War - Essay Example The tension between these two states has led to the loss of million lives in each side of the parallel from 1948 until 2002 (Foreign and Commonwealth Office 2008, cited in Turku, 2009). North Korea claimed that South Korea is a puppet of the United States. In addition, the North Korea accused South Korea of being anti-national and as an aid to foreign aggressors. Kim II Sung, throughout his reign, asked South Koreans to initiate a revolution that would abolish the US fascist military dictatorship. He further reiterated that armed struggle serves as the only means in order for the South Korea to be liberated from colonizers and oppressors. Kim II-Sung asserted that South Koreans, inspired by the construction of the Northern half and achievements in the socialist revolution, will be impelled to seek for reunification of the nation (Turku, 2009). The two nations agreed to discuss normalizing their relations starting on August 1971. The Inter-Korean summit on June 13 to 15, 2000, which is followed on October 2 to 4, 2007 in Pyongyang, marked the greatest progress that these two nations took towards peaceful coexistence. The two nations agreed to produce a joint declaration for national unification in the Korean peninsula and peaceful co-existence in the first summit (Moon 2002, cited in Turku, 2009). These historical summits were facilitated by the Ã¢â¬Å"sunshine policyÃ¢â¬ of South Korea. This policy has three principles namely, engage in economic terms with North Korea, respect the sovereignty of the North, and lastly zero tolerance for aggression manifested by North Korea (Turku, 2009). The present administration in South Korea abandoned the Ã¢â¬Å"sunshine policyÃ¢â¬ term; however, its policy still continues to concentrate on cooperation, principles of engagement, and dialogue with the North Korea. A summit that occurred on June 15, 2000 serves as historical milestones for the two nations. What was deemed as impossible in the past finally